Treeferns

Mini-photos click to enlarge


Angiopteris evecta
Angiopteris evecta
Angiopteris evecta, stipules
Angiopteris evecta, stipules around the leaf stalkes
Angiopteris evecta, young frond
Angiopteris evecta, young frond
Members of Angiopteris are large terrestrial ferns. Fronds are often more than 5 m long. Their large size limits them to outdoor gardens in the tropics or large greenhouses. Roots and stems are usually thick and fleshy, often massive. Sori are marginal consisting of a double row of sporangia, and an indusium is absent. The genus Angiopteris contains world-wide ca. 200 species. They need moist soil, good drainage and must be protected from wind and frost. Fronds are pinnate to bipinnate, pinnae are slightly glossy and often have a swelling at the juncture of the rachis and pinnae.
Angiopteris madagascariensis
Angiopteris madagascariensis
Angiopteris madagascariensis, stipules
Angiopteris madagascariensis, stipules
Angiopteris madagascariensis, sori
Angiopteris madagascariensis, sori
Blechnum_brasiliense
Blechnum brasiliense
Blechnum brasiliense, young fronds
Blechnum brasiliense, young fronds
Blechnum brasiliense, back side
Blechnum brasiliense, pinnae back side

Only one genus of Blechnum is nativ to Europe (Blechnum spicant). World-wide are ca. 200 species listet. A few of them are trunk-forming with age. The species B. brasiliense, B. discolor und B. gibbum are some of this trunk-forming species. Blechnum species are terrestrial ferns with leaves that are reddish when young but turn green with age. The genus usually can be recognized by the pinnatifid or pinnate fronds, with long sori running parallel to and on both sides of the costae. Some species are extreme dimorph. Fertile fronds are often longer stalked and have narrower pinnae than the sterile ones. Trunk-forming species are nativ to South-America, Asia, Africa and Australia. Most of them favor acidic soils. Spores are often difficult to germinate.

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Blechnum discolor
Blechnum discolor
Blechnum discolor, young fronds
Blechnum discolor, young fronds
Blechnum discolor, part of the pinnae
Blechnum discolor, fertile part of the pinnae
Blechnum gibbum
Blechnum gibbum
Blechnum gibbum, new fronds
Blechnum gibbum, new fronds
Blechnum gibbum, sori
Blechnum gibbum, sori
Cibotium schiedei
Cibotium schiedei
Cibotium schiedei, sori
Cibotium schiedei, sori
 
 
Cibotium are large tree ferns with tall trunks. Stems of Cibotium usually bear long, densely matted hairs. The 10 species are native to Central America, Asia and Hawaii. Sori are marginal. They are covered from a round indusium, looks like a shell when open.
Culcita macrocarpa
Culcita macrocarpa
Culcita macrocarpa, part of the pinnules
Culcita macrocarpa, part of the pinnules
Culcita macrocarpa, new frond
Culcita macrocarpa, new frond
Culcita has been reduced to two species, C. macrocarpa and C. conifolia. Last one is nativ to Central America. The circulation area of C. macrocarpa reach from Spain to South Portugal to the Canary Islands and Azores. Culcita consists of terrestrial or epiphytic ferns with massive protrate trunks or rhizomes but rarely reaching 3 m in height. Sori are marginal. Fronds are up to penta-pinnate.
Cyathea cooperi
Cyathea cooperi
Cyathea cooperi, new frond
Cyathea cooperi, new frond
Cyathea cooperi, sori
Cyathea cooperi,
sori

Cyathea is a very large genus with 500 - 600 species. The exact number of species is unknown. Cyathea comprises mostly terrestrial tree ferns. I think best known species is Cyathea cooperi. Most species of Cyathea are native to South- and Central America. Australia, but also present on many islands of the Pacific Ocean, including New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island.

The genus Caythea was divided into 3 groups of species. These have been called the Alsophila clade, the Sphaeropteris clade, and the Cyathea clade.

Fronds of Cyathea are up to tri-pinnate. Some of the species have sori without indusia, some with cup-shaped indusia and some with hooded indusia. Some species, for instance C. dealbata show a silvery underside on the fronds. New fronds are densely covered with many hairlike scales.

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Cyathea dealbata
Cyathea dealbata
Cyathea dealbata, sori
Cyathea dealbata, sori
 
 
Cyathea dregei
Cyathea dregei
Cyathea dregei, part of the pinnules
Cyathea dregei, part of the pinnules
 
 
Cyathea inciso
Cyathea inciso
Cyathea inciso, pinnules
Cyathea inciso, pinnules
Cyathea inciso, trunk
Cyathea inciso, trunk
Cyathea medullaris
Cyathea medullaris
Cyathea medullaris, new frond
Cyathea medullaris, new frond
Cyathea medullaris, back side of a pinnule
Cyathea medullaris part of the pinnules, back side
Dicksonia antarctica
Dicksonia antarctica
Dicksonia antarctica, new frond
Dicksonia antarctica, new frond
 
 
Dicksonia tree ferns are terrestrial and have large erect stem. They usually form a trunk, similar to that of Cyathea. Trunks are quite massive with the lower region covered by a thick mat of rootlets. Fronds are arranged funnel-like, pendent with age. Sori are round covered with an indusium. Dicksonia are native to South America, Australia, New Zealand and the islands in the Pacific.
Dicksonia squarrosa
Dicksonia squarrosa
Dicksonia squarrosa, part of the pinnules
Dicksonia squarrosa, part of the pinnules
Dicksonia squarrosa, sori
Dicksonia squarrosa, sori
Todea barbara
Todea babara
Todea barbara, new frond
Todea barbara, new frond
Todea barbara, pinna, back side
Todea barbara, pinna back side
The tree fern Todea is widespread, from South Africa to New Zealand and Australia. The genus Todea have 2 species, Todea barbara and Todea papuana. Both have short massive trunks, up to 3 m. Sporangia are grouped in clusters on the lower parts of the fronds only. Indusia are absent. It is a nice little tree fern for greenhouses.

All photographs contained on this website and on the fern CD are copyright by Roswitha Moeller. Please do not copy them without my express permission.

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